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Wilson Fernandes Coping with a senescing environment: when insects reveal to plants the secret of eternal youth 17 David Giron, W. Kaiser, M. Body, F. Dedeine, V. Gaudin, A. Lanoue, C. Lopez-Vaamonde, G. Glevarec, F. Gutzwiller, J. Casas and E. Isaias, Denis C. Carneiro, Anete T. Formiga, J. Santos and G. Tang, M. Pujade-Villar, M-M. Yang, S. Bihari and G. Melika Native parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gallwasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Hymenoptera: Cynipidae across its expanding range in Europe 25 G. Melika, D. Kos, E. Kriston, L. Krizbai, M. Bosio Chromosome evolution in the gall-inducing scale insect Apiomorpha minor cryptic species-complex 26 Penelope J.

Mills and Lyn G. Cook Psyllid, cecidomyiid, and mite galls associated with North American hackberry trees Cannabaceae: Celtis spp. Ogah, A. Omoloye and F. Otieno and M. Schick, Anna Holden and Diane M. Appel The oak gall wasps of Israel: taxonomy, diversity and distribution 38 E. Shachar, M. Inbar and N. Dorchin Bionomics, life table and management of the pongam flower gall midge Asp hondylia pongamiae Mani Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in India 39 R.

Sundararaj, R. Devaraj and S. Joshi The diversity of oak gallwasps Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini in Taiwan: a key puzzle of global diversity? Nicholls and Graham N. Tree and Laurence A. Wheeler, J. Blackwood and P. Pratt Biosystematics of the cecidomyiid flies forming polymorphic galls on the leaves of Litsea acuminata Bl. Schefer, K. Davies and D. Yeates Diversification, cospeciation, and host plant evolution in Fergusonina galling flies feeding on Myrtaceae 51 S.

Davies, M. Lewis, R. Giblin-Davis, M. Purcell, G. Taylor, A. Thornhill and D. Branco, J. Cook and Penny J. Mapes, Gregory P. Setlif, Cara M. Sheridan, Kevin W. Buss, and David J.


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The galling assemblages of representative species from both genera in eastern Australia are compared. Acacia has a relatively low species richness of galling organisms and is dominated by the Cecidomyiidae, which occur predominantly on buds, flowers or fruits. Eucalyptus has a rich galling arthropod fauna, particularly with species of Hymenoptera and is equally diverse on branches, leaves and inflorescences.

There are no clear geographic trends in species richness within the two host genera, and no taxa are shared between them. A range of hypotheses that attempt to explain species richness patterns in galling arthropods are examined in relation to Australian galling assemblages. Abilbaeva Karakalpak branch of Replican Scientific-Production Center of Ornamental Horticulture and Forestry, Nu The most common and numerous insect pest of turanga trees in tugai forests is Gypsonoma euphraticana Amsel Gypsonoma euphraticana causes damage while in the larval phase.

Larvae fold two leaves, cementing them with silk produced by their salivary glands. When inside the folded leaves, larvae eat away the parenchyma, skeletizing leaves. Each biological community has some regulator, such as the insects, worms and protozoans 2. The stability of an ecosystem, or its ability to survive, is determined by its species diversity 3. Tugai forests have a rich diversity of entomofauna. For example, in tugai forests, we found entomophagous: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysopa carnea,Trichogramma, Braconidae, Diptera and others 4.

Of these, Trichogramma larvae parasitize many species of Lepidoptera, including Gypsonoma euphraticana. Larvae of Chrysopa are active predators of Gypsonoma euphraticanalarvae. We have also identified two more parasitic species, on the larvae of Gypsonoma euphraticana. One of them was removed from overwintered larvae of Gypsonoma euphraticana in early spring April was Another type appeared in the hottest months — July and August.

Species belonging to this parasite genus is currently defined in the Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Plant Protection. Thereby, tugai forests have a rich and diverse entomofauna. Among them many species play an important role in the biological protection of the forest. These trees serve as obligate hosts for a group of specialized gall-forming aphids Homoptera: Fordinae. We examined the genetic diversity of P. The sites represent their wide and fragmented distribution, including northern mesic and southern xeric populations. Although the trees exhibit very distinct morphologies between mesic and xeric regions, the eco-geographical area had no apparent effect on the level of genetic diversity and differentiation.

Analysis of molecular variance AMOVA indicated that most of the variance was found within populations, suggesting recurrent gene flow among sites of all tested populations. Genetic differentiation of aphids was found to be distinct from that of the Pistacia trees. The aphid species S. We detected two major haplotypes one in the Northern Israeli populations and the other, a monomorphic haplotype, found only in the southern Israeli populations in the Negev highlands. Similar propensity was also detected in F.

Although aphids are highly specialized herbivores, it appears that their speciation does not coincide with the genetic structure of the host plant. Our data suggests that the disjunctive distribution in the Levant should promote speciation via isolation. Based on previous successful programs in other countries see for instance Quacchia et al.

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The first one is, of course, to continually control the chestnut gall wasp populations, both in commercial orchards and in forests. Meanwhile, a second objective is to monitor, in recently invaded areas, the recruitment of native parasitoids by D. The last objective is to use classical biological control as an experimental model to test eco-evolutionary hypothesis.

During the two first years of this project, 25 releases of T. First results indicate that i T. CEP CEP 3 Nevertheless, the high biodiversity of gall bearing plants and gall inducing insects in the Neotropics may impose barriers of the systems recognition just on macro-morphological basis. A case study with two congeneric Myrtaceae species, e. Psidium myrtoides and P. Based upon their external morphology, both galls are characterized as globoid morphotypes, glabrous, ranging from deep green to yellowish green or reddish.

During senescence, they present similar dehiscence mechanism through plant tissue necrosis. Even phenological analyses fail to distinguish the systems, as both insects induce galls on the young leaves of their hosts, and present univoltine life cycles. In order to test the validity of the extended phenotype concept as a reliable tool for distinguishing these galls, anatomical analyses and histochemical tests for carbohydrates and related enzymes were addressed. Even though gall morphogenesis and final anatomical structures are strikingly similar, histochemical tests show a divergent pattern for the galls physiological traits.

Galls of N. These results show the importance of anatomical and histochemical investigations on the complementarity of taxonomical and ecological studies concerning galling systems. For this case study, the extended phenotype concept is only valid to the extent of cellular responses of host plants to the biotic stress imposed by the galling herbivores. Galls normally grow on plant tissues, and gall-inducers use these leaf structures as a shelter for protection and source of nutrition.

The use of stable isotopes in the examination of trophic interactions in other insect communities has been fruitful. Carbon becomes slightly enriched across trophic levels, and less reliably so than nitrogen; carbon isotope enrichment is primarily balanced by the ratio of respiration to growth.

In the study, we investigated the effects of galling using gall -inducers on Machilus thunbergii and Machilus kusanoi by measuring stable carbon isotope of the gall and plant tissues. The results support the hypothesis assuming that galls are important sinks of nutritional resources for gall-inducers. Lyn G. Cook1 and Nate B. However, this does not necessarily translate into lineages of gallers being more species-rich than their non-galling relatives.

Although two lineages in particular Euurina sawflies and Apiomorpha, a scale insect are exceptionally diverse compared to non-galling sisters others, such as Maskellia an armoured scale insect , are remarkably species-poor. Here we explore some of the potential explanations for differences in diversification of gall-inducing insects and their relatives, including differential host ranges of sister taxa, crown ages of lineages and ecological niche limitation.

Stone2, G. Melika3, L. Box 2. Box , Hungary Oak cynipid galls support species-rich communities of different organisms in addition to the gall-inducing gall wasps. Among many insects, a diversity of tortricid, gelechiid and noctuid moths has been reared from a wide range of European oak cynipid galls. These show diverse relationships with the gall tissues and gall inducers. Only a few of them can be considered genuine gallicolous inquilines, and most appear to be opportunistic and occasional gall inhabitants. European literature lists 8 species of Pammene Tortricidae as inqulines in oak cynipid galls.

Contrary to this, we have reared only 2 species of Pammene during our long term and extensive rearing experiments. The European distribution, host range and host preferences of these two species P. Our observations show these 2 species of Pammene to be fundamentally herbivorous with occasional predatory behaviour.

The latter results suggest that predation is a much more common and frequent phenomenon of Pammene larvae than previously considered. The advantages of this kind of predation are also discussed. Beggs2, Robert Biedermann3 and George L. Additional, and often latent, ecological parameters acting at different spatial scales complicate the investigation of seemingly simple tritrophic systems.

We applied multiple hypotheses tests to investigate a tritrophic system habitat parameters. We collected bud galls induced by a gall midge Cecidomyiidae from a riparian shrub, Veronica stricta Plantaginaceae , at local one stream; V. We evaluated how habitat parameters, acting at different spatial scales gall, plant, patch, stream , affect the herbivore-parasitoid proportion per gall, using generalized linear models and multi-model inference.

At the local scale, the herbivore-parasitoid ratio was strongly affected by patch elevation, V. Importantly, we detected significant interactions between each pair of these habitat parameters: galls on smaller plants had less parasitoids only when the plant grew at higher elevations or was surrounded by low-growing vegetation.

Likewise, the negative effect of elevation on the parasitoid was present only at patches embedded in low-growing vegetation or if galls were collected from smaller plants. In contrast, the herbivore-parasitoid ratio was independent of gall volume, gall abundance, patch area and habitat fragmentation. However, none of the habitat models proved transferable from the local to the regional scale. We assume that the dominant parasitoid Gastrancistrus sp. We suggest that simultaneously addressing multiple hypotheses, including their interactions, provides more ecologically meaningful insights into tritrophic systems than testing individual hypotheses separately does.

Adults of P. After hatching, P. Infestation of twigs by P. The highest percentage of leaf infection by P. The percentage of P. Nymphs of A. The galls induced by A. The maximum percentage of shoot galls induced by A. The percentage of A. The abundance of galls induced by P. Juvenile nematodes are transported and deposited by the fly during oviposition with her own eggs into suitable regions on a susceptible plant host.

The flies disperse the nematodes and the nematodes appear to initiate gall formation. The nematodes have a unique dicyclic life history, with one parthenogenetic generation in plant galls and a heterosexual generation that parasitise the female fly larvae. Molecular analyses have confirmed that each fly species is associated with one nematode species. Each mutualism occurs on a single host species, or on closely related host plants.

Galls may be unilocular one fly foundress, with strict vertical transmission of nematodes or multi-locular potentially more than one foundress, with potential for nematodes to interbreed. Both Fergusonina and Fergusobia each represent a potentially large radiation of species. Host reaction gall type and morphological attributes for both flies and nematodes also appear to be correlated with their molecular phylogenies.

This system is being developed as a model for studying evolution and patterns of diversification at three trophic levels. Priyadarsanan Dharma Rajan and K. Why do all ovules in figs flowers Ficus not develop into seeds? Why do foundresses not oviposit in all ovules? Differences in the style lengths is believed to determine the fate of the flowers and control both gall and seed production.

However, we found tthere is no bimodality of style lengths, that may influence a higher probability of the short styled ovaries being wasp galls and ovaries having longer styles bearing the seed. We explored the significance of the other floral structures in determining the fate of the fig ovaries. Using biometric techniques using the physical measurements of various floral structures and applying multivariate statistics, we observed that the size and shape of the stigmas and ovaries of the pistillate flowers contribute significantly to the differential placement of the flowers in a PCA based scatter plot..

We also report that the unfertilized syconium of Ficus benjamina that the size of the ovaries of the short- styled flowers is relatively larger than the long- styled varies in the post stigma receptivity stage. Based on the analysis of the physical parameters of the digital images of the stigmas, we have recorded that stigmas of short-styled ovaries showed greater circularity, while the stigma of seed ovaries are largely linear in F.

Pollen germination studies showed that the stigmas of short-styled flowers do not support germination, while the stigmas of the long-styles do. This wasp causes heavy galling of the midribs, petioles and stems of young leaves. In instances where population numbers are high, severe galling may lead to severe stunting of trees or even mortality. Leptocybe invasais native to Australia and was first described only in after it was found on Eucalyptus species in Israel.

Since , L. In North and South America L. In Africa, the wasp was first detected in Ethiopia in and it spread south-east to Kenya and Tanzania in , Zimbabwe in , also reaching South Africa in Since its initial discovery in Pretoria, South Africa, L. We have used molecular techniques to unravel the route of introduction of L.

We have also developed and used single sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic diversity present within the regional populations of the wasp. Understanding the route of invasion and diversity of the population has implications for quarantine, future management of pathways, breeding resistant Eucalyptus varieties and the development of biological control programs.

Selitrichodes neseri was first collected from galled Eucalyptus saplings at Nanango, Queensland, Australia. Its recent discovery and the promise that it holds as a potential biological control agent of L. Selitrichodes neseri is a biparental ectoparasitoid. Observations from dissected galls indicate that S. Observed parasitism in captivity ranged from 9. Adult S. The average developmental time from oviposition to emergence was There was no pre-oviposition period.

A single female produced a maximum of thirty-nine offspring, with a maximum of ten per day. Dissection of the ovaries showed the presence of twelve ovarioles. The sex ratio of S. Galls of native South African insects most closely related to L. Selitrichodes neseri shows considerable potential as a biological control agent of L.

It has consequently been released in plantations and the efficacy of infestation will be measured. North American goldenrods support a rich fauna of gall inducing insects that have been popular models for the study of evolutionary and ecological aspects of speciation and tritrophic interactions. The majority of galling insects on these plants are gall midges but the biology of many of them has not been studied and some remain undescribed.

Among these are at least 7 species of the large genus Asp hondylia, whose taxonomy and biology are elucidated in the present work for the first time using morphological, molecular and ecological data. Asphondylia species pose taxonomic and systematic challenges due to general morphological uniformity and often complex host associations. Some of the species on goldenrods induce two different types of galls during their life cycle, some exhibit host alterations during the season, and some do both.

In the lack of morphological differences, recognizing species and deciphering their host associations must rely heavily on molecular data. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that radiation in this group occurred through a combination of shifts between host plants and to novel adaptive zones different plant parts or time periods on the same host-plant species.

In such habitats, generally the vegetation is dominated by sclerophyllous species. We attempted to fill such gap by conducting a survey of galling insects in the canopy of the largest tropical rain forest of the world, in the Amazon region. Overall, we sampled the upper layer of 1, tree crowns. An unprecedented diversity of gall inducing insects per sampling points was recorded in these Amazonian forests. The Amazonian upper canopy, in spite of being in the rain forest realm, present similar habitat conditions to Mediterranean-type vegetation, i.

Kaiser1, M. Body1, F. Dedeine1, V. Gaudin1, A. Lanoue2, C. Lopez- Vaamonde3, G. Glevarec 2, F. Gutzwiller1, J. Casas1 and E. Phytophagous insects can be divided in two large groups according to their feeding habit: ectophages feeding externally on plant tissues and endophages living concealed within plant tissues and feeding internally. In spite of a reasonable understanding of the history and origins of the endophagous feeding habit, its evolution and adaptive significance remains unclear. Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain the endophagous-feeding life history mode: the nutrition hypothesis, the microenvironment hypothesis and the enemy hypothesis.

This symbiotic association impacts not only nutrient acquisition but also the feeding behavior of leaf miner insects and presumably allowing insects to specialize on specific host-plants. Finally, while endophagous insects through their feeding habit secure their nutrition and shelter, they also have to adopt specific feeding strategies allowing them to meet their energetic requirements, to face variations in food composition and nutritional needs, and to counteract plant defensive mechanisms.

In this context, emerging data strongly suggest converging strategies between gall-inducer and leaf-miner arthropods. The results show that both gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not found in the gall tissues. Comparisons made between the infested leaves and scale-free leaves in photosynthesis, no alternation of photosynthetic efficiency was found in the insect infestation. In addition, the gall tissues had higher glucose and fructose contents than the leaves, indicating that the leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls were sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. These enemies have imposed strong selection pressure on the development of efficient defence mechanisms which usually, though not always rely on manipulated host-plant traits.

The sophisticated and complex gall defence mechanisms against competitors, predators vertebrate and invertebrate and pathogens have been demonstrated in several aphid systems. Both aphid behaviour and the chemical defences generated by the plants can significantly reduce the rate of gall destruction. We found that gall-forming aphids Slavum wertheimae can control the production and storage of plant Pistacia atlantica secondary metabolites. Furthermore, distinct and high quantities of volatile terpenes were detected in the headspaces of the galls, signalling to, and deterring potential enemies.

Thus, the extended phenotype of the aphids is also expressed externally beyond the borders of the galled tissue. Our analyses stress the fact that many gall traits has been shaped by top-down effects. Isaias1,2,3, Denis C. Carneiro1, Anete T. Formiga1, J. Santos2 and G. The evaluation of nine inventories in Brazil accounted for gall shapes on host plant species.

A checklist of seven standardized morphotypes clavate, conical, cylindrical, fusiform, globoid, lenticular, and rosette and five additional shapes bivalve-shaped, horn-shaped, leaf fold, marginal roll, and pocket-shaped was proposed to group the majority of the three-dimensional shapes reported. The amorphous galls were concluded to have been formed by several coalescent galls. Whenever possible, future inventories should present the 1 host-plant species, 2 galling herbivore identification to the lowest possible taxonomic level, 3 host plant organ and gall position, 4 gall morphotypes, 5 gall color and indumentum, 6 phenological and developmental data, 7 association with other trophic levels, and 8 dimension and number of chamber s.

Gall color and age may cause changes in gall phenotypes and produce overestimations, especially when superhosts of galling herbivores appear in the inventories. The implications on the generation of gall functional designs led to the proposal of models for cell elongation and the dynamics of pectins in cell walls either in gall shape or age basis. It is expected that elongation axis, extensibility and support are similar in correspondent morphotypes, but vary due to the metabolism of each gall.

The pectic labeling with specific monoclonal antibodies indicates changes in cell wall compounds in a superhost of galling herbivores, Baccharis reticularia Asteraceae , from non-galled condition towards gall maturation. Current results indicate the maintenance of the potential for elongation and flexibility throughout gall development. Besides, the exclusive labeling of extensins in complex morphotypes corroborates the more conspicuous changes necessary to the promotion of some gall shapes when compared to simpler ones.

As to the gall-inducing cecidomyiids, 40 named species belonging to 20 genera have been recorded from the Korean Peninsula. These figures are much fewer than 95 named species belonging to 46 genera recorded from the Japanese Archipelago. Therefore, a more intensive field survey is needed in the Korean Peninsula to compare gall-inducing cecidomyiid fauna between the two areas and to discuss the derivation of cecidomyiid fauna of the Japanese Archipelago.

We surveyed cecidomyiid galls in in various localities in South Korea and found at least 11 sorts of gall that are new to the peninsula. As representatives of Japanese cecidomyiid species, we selected those distributed in the island of Kyushu, because it is most closely located to the Korean Peninsula. For comparison, we listed the named species and unnamed segregates that were identified based on their gall shape and host plant information. Then, we compared similarity and dissimilarity of cecidomyiid fauna between the two areas and referred to species richness in relation to flora of both areas.

We also discussed reasons for the absence of records from one of the two areas. An investigation was undertaken to determine which of the species really induce the galls and to elucidate the role of the other species. Confining adults of each species separately on sleeved branches showed experimentally that Quadrastichodella nova Girault Eulophidae: Tertrastichinae is the only species in the complex that is able to induce seed-capsule galls.

The host relationships of an undescribed Aprostocetus sp. Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae and another undescribed species Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae could not be determined because they emerged in insufficient numbers. Some common errors are discussed that may cause the wrong insect to be regarded as the gall-inducer. These include missing some of the gall inhabitants due to not sampling throughout the year; not using molecular techniques to match the larvae in the galls with the adults that emerge, and the assumption that the most abundant species has to be the gall inducer.

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In aphids, specialized castes called soldiers perform both colony defence and gall cleaning in open galls. However, some social aphids form completely closed galls, wherein hundreds to thousands of insects grow and reproduce for several months in isolation. Why these social aphids are not drowned by accumulated honeydew has been an enigma. Nipponaphis monzeni Hormaphidinae: Aphididae forms completely closed galls on Distylium racemosum trees. The mature galls often contain over 2, individuals, but surprisingly, no accumulation of honeydew was observed in galls of N. The aphids do excrete honeydew, because when they were placed on an artificial feeding system, a number of honeydew droplets appeared around the insects.

These observations suggested that the excreted honeydew were removed from the gall cavity in some way. To clarify this mystery, we examined the possibility that honeydew is absorbed by the inner gall wall. Field experiments revealed that the inner gall wall absorbed water efficiently and removed it via the plant vascular system. On the other hand, in open galls of Tuberaphis styraci formed on Styrax obassia trees, no water absorption was observed. The inner wall of the open and completely closed galls revealed remarkable differences in hydrophobicity and ultrastructure: hydrophilic inner wall surface covered with a thin, reticular and spongy layer in completely closed galls, in contrast to hydrophobic inner wall surface covered with a thick wax layer in open galls.

These properties were also observed in congenic aphids, Ceratovacuna japonica and C. Tang3, M. Pujade- Villar5, M-M. Yang3, S. Bihari2 and G. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that the inquilines are not a monophyletic group, and instead comprise up to 3 distinct evolutionary lineages with independent origins within the Aylacini assemblage: i rose-associates inquilines in Synophromorpha and Periclistus, ii oak-associated inquilines in Ceroptres, iii oak-associated inquilines in Synergus complex Synophrus-Saphonecrus-Synergus-Ufo and the Afrotropical genus Rhoophilus attacking moth-induced galls.

The phylogenetic analyses within the Synergus complex of species support the monophyly of Synophrus 7 known species and Ufo 4 described species , while the monophyly of Saphonecrus was rejected. The large genus Synergus appeared to be monophyletic but only in the case of Palaearctic species; involving of Nearctic species, currently assigned to Synergus, might essentially change the picture. Neither molecular nor morphological data support the maintenance of Saphonecrus 21 described species worldwide as a monophyletic group, and hence it cannot be diagnosed as a distinct genus.

Earlier data had been supported the hypothesis that the Western Palaearctic Saphonecrus species split into 3 clades barbotini, connatus, undulatus. An ongoing research on Taiwan reveals a large number of new Saphonecrus species suggesting that Saphonecrus is a polyphyletic group and evolutionary relationships within this group are much more complicated that were thought earlier.

Recent phylogenetic tree of the Synergus complex based on a Bayesian reconstruction from a segment of 28S D2 and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences, involving Eastern Palaearctic and Oriental species, showed that Saphonecrus is divided into 9 distinct clades. The current limits of Saphonecrus genus must be changed and new genera are under description. Melika 1, D. Kos3, E. Kriston1, L. Krizbai1 , M. The chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus DK Hymenoptera: Cynipidae is considered to be the most important pest of chestnut Castanea worldwide.

Originating from China, this pest was accidentally introduced to Japan in , colonized Korea in and the USA in In it was detected for the first time in Europe in Piedmont, Italy. Since , DK has established itself and spread throughout Italy all the way to Sicily, and has also been reported in France in , Slovenia in , Hungary in , Switzerland in , Croatia in , Slovakia and Czech Republic in and Spain in Within the native range in China, 11 species of parasitoids were found to be associated with DK which kept the host populations at low densities.

We study the native parasitoid complexes of DK across it expanding range in north Italy since , Slovenia since and Croatia since Twenty-seven chalcidoid parasitoid species have so far recruited naturally to the new host in Italy during In Slovenia 7 species were found in , 11 in and 13 in ; in Croatia 11 in and 15 in Recruitment of parasitoids to DK depends on actual parasitoid species composition of oak gallwasps to be found in the same locality and is higher in mixed chestnut-oak forests than in pure Castanea stands. Because of variation within and among morphospecies, it makes a good study system to examine the role of chromosomal change in speciation.

Although closely related species of many animals can have different chromosome numbers, it is difficult to determine whether chromosome differences have had an active role in speciation. One reason is that chromosomal differences might have accrued after other isolating mechanisms were already in place. We karyotyped specimens of the A. John C. This mite has the most conspicuous symptom of tree injury, and is used by laymen to identify hackberry trees.

The other gall makers of hackberries are comprised of about 14 psyllid species Psyllidae: Pachypsylla and 23 species of cecidomyiid gall midges, most of which belong to the genus Celticecis [Diptera: Cecidomyiidae]. Cecidomyiid galls have generally been ignored because their galls are less conspicuous. Most species grow quickly in early spring, but some have a delayed, late summer development.

Psyllids comprise the more conspicuous galls of hackberry, and are often regarded as pests. Psyllids fall into two species groups: [1] the leaf gall makers, and [2] the woody gall makers. Adults of the leaf-feeding forms emerge from galls in the fall; the wood-feeding forms emerge in spring. When psyllid nymphs are fully grown, their galls do not dehisce and fall to the ground; cecidomyiid larvae do form cocoons in the galls that subsequently dehisce at various times during summer and fall to the ground.

Ogah1, A. Omoloye2 and F. In this study, the biological characteristics of each life stage of O. Field surveys were also conducted to determine the population dynamics and ecology of AfRGM. The experiments were conducted during the and rice-growing seasons at two localities, Ogidiga forest zone and Edozhigi southern Guinea savannah in Nigeria. Reproduction in AfRGM was univoltine and mean developmental period from egg 2. Mean fecundity was Field results indicated that AfRGM is predominantly a pest of lowland rice but it has also been recorded in upland rice and has different ecologies in Nigeria.

The pest attacked the crop at the vegetative developmental stage. The incidence was found low at the beginning of the rainy season and peaking at the peak of rainfall. It was observed that wild rice species andvolunteer crops served as alternative host of the insect during the dry season when cultivated rice was not in the field. In conclusion, the distribution and occurrence of AfRGM depend on the prevailing ecological factors, such as climate and availability of host.

Otieno1,2 and M. Herbivorous insects selectively choose the plant species and plant parts on which to lay their eggs. This choice is crucial in gall forming insect herbivores such as Leptocybe invasa Hymenoptera: Eulophidae , since the survival of the immobile larvae which relies on the transformed plant cells inside the galls. Since L. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which comprises seven sub-species, has shown variability in severity of galling caused by L.

We sought to establish the role of leaf physical characteristics of subspecies and genotypes of E. The number of egg deposition marks on shoots of seedlings raised from seeds from the Australia Tree Seed Centre, was used to rank hosts on their susceptibility as assessed by wasps.

Oviposition incidence and abundance varied according to genotypes with the genotypes of E. Leaf toughness, measured as specific leaf weight, was the leaf physical attribute that influenced the oviposition on the different genotypes. The influence of leaf chemistry of the different genotypes on oviposition preference is still being investigated.

It also threatened the Florida Everglades whose habitat was highly favourable to the rapid growth of M. In surveys commenced to find biological control agents in the native range of this tree along the east coast of Australia. Of more than insect species that were found to feed on M. Cecidomyiidae and Fergusoninidae flies, gall-forming Eriococcidae scales and Eriophyiidae mites were all evaluated for their potential as biological control agents. Fergusonina turneri was released in but failed to establish after multiple attempts.

The stem-galling fly Lophodiplosis indenata Diptera: Cecidomyiidae was released in and rapidly established causing extensive damage, particularly to sapling and seedlings, and has contributed to the successful control of M. Another three Lophodiplosis species are being evaluated in case further control measures are required.

Their unique association is the only known mutualism between insects and nematodes, and Fergusobia is the only nematode with parthenogenetic and sexual plant-living generations followed by an insect-parasitic generation. Because of the host specificity of each Fergusobia species to one particular Fergusonina species, and to their tree host species, this system provides an excellent model for studies of coevolution. A previous study of three Fergusonina-Fergusobia species from multilocular snow gum galls found that the fly and nematode phylogenies correspond at species level, but the correspondence breaks down at an intra-specific level.

Multiple flies founding galls may be one reason for this incongruence, as it could allow nematodes to migrate between fly hosts. It has often been speculated that multiple foundresses occur in Fergusonina, but this has never been tested until now. I sequenced flies of 5 species, 10 flies each from 30 galls, compared the mitochondrial COI sequences and found that more than a quarter of the galls in the study contained multiple haplotypes, each representing a maternal line. As the marker used is not very sensitive, this is a conservative estimate, and the incidence of multiple founding is likely to be much higher.

Demand for timber and timber products continue to grow and is being met by increased reliance on plantation forestry. The increasing commercial importance of plantations is reflected in the major expansion that occurred in the middle of the twentieth century, so that now, plantation forestry occupies millions of hectares. For many industrial plantations, high productivity is often an important factor in species selection ignoring their impact on reaction to pest and diseases.

A typical example is galling in trees which is certainly in forest conditions, amount to little more than curiosities but in plantation forestry the scenario is entirely different as the trees are grown, both within and outside distribution of natural distribution of tree species. Among the plantation tree species of India, the establishment of teak Tectona grandis , shisham Dalbergia sissoo and eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp. The important gall inducers in plantations are Asp hondylia tectonae on teak, Contarinia dalbergiae on shisham, Leptocybe invasa on Eucalypts, Contarina prosopidis on khekiri and Asp hondylia pongamiae on pongam.

In depth knowledge on these galling insects is the key to protecting plantations forests from their devastating outbreaks. The present paper deals with the galling in these important tree species of India and the strategies to manage them to achieve the goal of plantation forestry. Phytophagous mites damage food crops and fruits. Some are known to transmit plant viral diseases and also induce galls.

The Biology and Ecology of Insects that Live in Plant Galls

The gall inducing mites mostly belong to the Superfamily Eriophyoidea that includes more than species. These mites can cause damage by feeding on plant cell contents, create deformities in different parts of plants and transmit plant viruses. They are unique among the mites because they have only two pairs of legs and many studies provided evidences that gall forming eriophyid mites undergo seasonal changes in abundance.

In the present study bimonthly survey were conducted for period of two years to assess the population dynamics of Eriophyes cheriani Masses inducing leaf gall in plantation of Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre in Bangalore, Karnataka, south India. The incidence of leaf gall was found throughout the year showing leaf gall fluctuation in different months. New flush appeared during summer season coincided with the initiation of infestation in which the mites multiply its population on P.

Adult mites preferred young leaves for egg laying and the newly hatched nymphs made injury on leaf surface resulting in formation of pouch galls and disfiguring the structure of leaves. Gradually leaf galls appeared in the month of April in field. They were formed on upper and lower surface of leaf area and adult mites emerged out mainly at the base of galls. The infestation was severe from May till October. During November - December the mite population slowly declined and leaves started shedding from the plants in autumn. Finally the population declined to a very low level during the month of February with no leaves on plants.

The correlation and regression analysis indicated that maximum temperature insignificantly negatively correlated with the leaf gall infestation, gall per leaflet and mites per gall. On the contrary, minimum temperature showed positive significant correlation with all the parameters except that of galls per leaflet. Both the morning and evening humidity showed significant positive correlation with all the parameters except that mites per gall which was insignificant with morning relative humidity.

Rainfall showed significant positive correlation with all the parameters of assessment ie, leaf gall infestation, galls per leaflet and mites per gall. The findings are discussed in this communication. Anacardiaceae in Asia where mango is grown as commercial fruit tree. Important species of midges in Pakistan are leaf gall midges Procontarinia spp. Eggs are laid by the females in the youngest flowers and leaf buds resulting in leaf and blossom damage causing low yield of mango fruit. To assess the yield losses caused by midges, three sites were selected for damage assessment of different species of leaf gall midges and blossom midges.

Data was recorded by counting number of galls per10 leaves on each twig at different stages of tree. Data was recorded fortnightly. Alos blossoms of variety Anwar Ratol were randomly selected to count the midge symptoms and population of larvae in traps by fully observing the inflorescence. There was a positive correlation between with the gall number per leaf and and blossom, and the yield loss caused by different mango midge species. Some species attack fresh leaves and young shoots by making blister-shaped or circular galls and blackening shoot tips. Use of bookmarks requires individual registration with Amigo Reader.

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Life cycle of aphids

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Life in a Gall , Rosalind Blanche,

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Gall-Making Insects and Mites

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